Know about Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia

If you have been feeling tired even with a stroll, it is time you have your sugar tested. As much as we enjoy partying, planning dinners, and going out, if the body is not ready to enjoy, there is no enjoyment. Blood sugar levels play a vital role in keeping the body fit. Therefore, it is imperative to have a normal range of blood sugar to prevent diseases. People with sugar have various struggles, and the battle intensifies with every ounce of sugar increase in the body leading to high blood sugar and low blood sugar.

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Importance of Insulin

Sugar in the blood vessel comes primarily from food items rich in carbohydrates, such as fruits, pasta, bread, beans, and the rest. The human body cells require energy, and blood glucose provides it. The brain needs glucose to function. The body uses glucose using insulin made by the pancreas. When the insulin decides to go silent, it is then that you find the sugar level going high. In this case, the glucose is not broken down in the bloodstream, resulting in health problems. Whether you have sugar or not, always keep an eye on the range of sugar levels at regular intervals. Check if you are under the radar of high or low sugar levels-

  • Fasting (at least after 8 hours of a meal or before a meal) – 80–130 mg/dl (4.4–7.2 mmol/L)
  • PP (Postprandial) 2 hours after a meal should be <180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/L)

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What are the Symptoms of Low and High Glucose Levels?

It is not always that your sugar level will go up. However, if the sugar level is lower than the normal range of blood sugar, you may be susceptible to low glucose levels. Below are the symptoms to understand if you have high or low blood glucose levels.

Low Blood Sugar Level Symptoms:

The low sugar level is also known as hypoglycemia. People with sugar are more vulnerable to the following symptoms:

  • Profusely sweating
  • Feeling tired and wanting to sleep
  • Hands and legs shaking
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Pounding heartbeat
  • Mood swings and tearful
  • Turning pale
  • Lips tingle
  • Anxiety and anxiousness
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Blurred Vision

If no immediate action is taken, a person may get seizures, fits, pass out, or slurred speech. Taking a glucose or sugar water tablet helps to get the sugar level back.

High Blood Sugar Symptoms:

The high sugar level is also known as hyperglycemia. Its symptoms are:

  • Getting tired and fatigued
  • Frequent headaches
  • Feeling of throat getting thirsty and dry
  • Frequently feeling hungry
  • Frequent urination 

What are the Causes of Low Blood Sugar and High Blood Sugar? 

Causes of Low blood sugar are:

  • You may have low blood sugar if you are taking a high level of sugar medicines or if insulin doses are increased.
  • Medical conditions like kidney diseases or liver problems can lead to low sugar levels.
  • When the pancreas releases Sulfonylurea, which stimulates insulin, you may feel low sugar in that case. 
  • Exercising too much at one time. It can higher the risks of increasing muscle cells to take up glucose levels from the body.
  • Lack of carbohydrates in your diet. Read more about sugar free biscuits to include in your diet
  • You may be prone to low sugar if you have a hormone deficiency.
  • Diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting may be associated with low sugar levels.

Causes of High Blood Sugar

  • Chronic stress at work or home may cause certain stress hormones and chemicals to release. Some of these stress hormones drive the glucose level up in the body.
  • An anxiety disorder may impact blood sugar levels and cause high blood sugar levels. 
  • Lack of physical activity elevates the glucose level.
  • Carbohydrates in the food make the blood sugar level rise high. Processed foods or fatty food are common reasons for being overweight. If you are taking medications for diabetes, it is imperative to keep your weight in a healthy range. If you become obese, it becomes difficult to control the glucose level and increases the sugar. 
  • High cholesterol levels, excess fat around the waist, high blood pressure, and increased triglycerides are reasons for not having a normal range of sugar levels.

What to Do When You Have Low or High Sugar Levels?

Here’s how to handle your low sugar levels:

  • First, check the sugar level with a finger-stick blood sugar metre. 
  • Make the person have a sugary snack, glucose tablet, or sugar water. 
  • Track the sugar level till it reaches at least 70 mg/dL. You can check the sugar level after 15 minutes of consumption of the tablet/food or water. 
  • In emergency cases where the person is unconscious or vomiting continuously, you may have to inject glucagon injection. It is advisable to visit an endocrinologist, a specialised doctor in diabetes, or an emergency center at a hospital. 

Handling high sugar levels

  • Insulin-based treatment- You may take rapid-acting insulin when sugar levels increase. It should relieve you within 15 to 30 minutes of intake, and your levels should come in the normal range of blood sugar.
  • Drink sufficient water- The body flushes out the excess sugar through urination. The only hitch is to avoid having excess water if you have liver or kidney problems. 
  • Change your eating habits and incorporate protein-rich food. Such food lowers blood sugar.
  • Incorporate regular exercise into your daily life. Exercise aids in drop at sugar levels. 
  • Count your intake of carbohydrates and make sure you track what you eat. Eat a balanced meal and keep the portion of carbohydrates moderate. 
  • Know the Glycemic index for food and plan your meals accordingly. 

Summing Up on Blood Sugar Levels

Today, it is easy to have diabetes self-management. Get yourself thoroughly checked and embrace a healthy lifestyle. There are sugar check machines that are available readily in the market. They are simple to use and provide immediate results. Your body will reveal if you are towards a higher blood sugar level based on the range of sugar levels. When a person has type 1 or 2 diabetes, the glucose levels become irregular. It is harmful to health.